Enchanté World of Jean-Baptiste Monge

Jean-Baptiste MongeJean-Baptiste Monge is an author illustrator since 1994 and Concept, character designer and visual Development Artist since 2009.

My favorite subjects are Fantasy and Faery and all that touch the legends, tales and marvelous universes. I work for publishing and the animation industry.(Jean-Batiste Monge.)

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[Jean-Baptiste Monge’s] colour usage is exceptional; just look at that pot in the above image, not to mention the reds in the skin and the electric blue highlighting. You can see the video of how he did that piece over here.
His basic structure is remarkably simple, but so effective. They’re almost cartoon shapes, but he makes them work with his rendering. And he can do the realistic stuff incredibly well. His animals are lifelike and fit with the faeries he draws next to them so seamlessly that even the great Rien Poortvliet would admire how he handles them. (– From the Realms of Faerie blog post by illustrator Jay Penn.)

Read an interview with Monge here.
Jean-Baptiste Monge444And on YouTube:

Nude Arse Seriously Attuned To Art

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Copyright James Turrell. Image courtesy: National Gallery of Australia.

Two years ago, almost to the day, the Leopold Museum in Vienna opened its doors to a group of nude men for a preview of a new exhibition. Naked men, very appropriately, were the first members of the public to see the gallery’s Nackte Männer or Naked Men art show.

I posted some material about the Viennese exhibit and called my post Bare Your ASS To See Nuda ARS! Cute, wasn’t it?

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The nude tour waits together in the museum’s lobby. (Photograph: Christo Crocker. Image courtesy: National Gallery of Australia)

Nude. Art. Tours. At first, the trend of ogling masterpieces in the buff seems like a cleverly planned gimmick — a promotional ploy aimed at upping the ante of arts coverage across the internet. As if it needs explanation, the practice involves hordes of nude patrons gazing upon a museum’s offerings sans clothing. The tours usually take place after hours, when the “skyclad” spectators — that’s the official modifier for nude art tour enthusiasts — can soak up masterpieces without the prying eyes of more puritanical admirers. You know, the ones who insist upon wearing clothing.

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Stuart Ringholt. Preceded by a tour of the show by artist Stuart Ringholt, 6-8pm. James TURRELL Virtuality squared 2014. Ganzfeld: built space, LED lights. Collection James Turrell. Photograph: Christo Crocker Copyright Stuart Ringholt. Copyright James Turrell. Image courtesy: National Gallery of Australia.

“Naked, our whole body experiences color,” says artist Stuart Ringholt. “We no longer just look at it, but now have the capacity to feel it also. We can let it wash over us, feel its vibration.”

Stuart Ringholt  is currently hosting nude art tours at Australia’s National Gallery of Art in Canberra, the most recent museum to hop aboard the nude art tour train. In conjunction with its exhibition, “James Turrell: A Retrospective,” the NGA recruited Melbourne-based Ringholt to host three 50-person nude tours of the show. Apparently to no one’s surprise all of the naked tours, hosted in April, sold out within one day of releasing tickets.

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Ringholt is no stranger to the naked art viewing practice. He’s led several nude art tours around Australia. Turrell is an American artist, known for works that manipulate light and space as his preferred media, and creates work that’s, according to Ringholt, better viewed without clothing.

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According to Ringholt, “Nudity frees the spirit. It promotes positive body image and is an opportunity to accept one’s body, not despise it. It is educational. Education through feeling. We consider the notion we are less sexualized with our clothes off than on. Clothing engages the imagination and sparks the lust drive. Without the material registers of clothing the nude body desexualizes. Being nude is fun and promotes happiness. Whenever we are nude, whether it is taking a bath, skinny dipping in the ocean or making love we are generally at our happiest.

It is against the law in Australia to be naked in public and there are few opportunities to partake in cultural experiences naked. These events say to marginalized naturist groups, we accept you and we want you at our gallery. A major motivation for doing the first nude tours of an art gallery was to allow this artist to celebrate the success of another. Artists are very competitive and researching other artists with the goal of talking on them is welcome respite.

As electrosensitive as they are…

Photographerphcreated a series of pictures looking at people who suffer from Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity (EHS) or Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance Attributed to Electromagnetic Fields (IEI-EMF). The condition is deemed controversial by medical sciences.

The stories of British people in Thomas Ball photographs, however, are quite compelling.

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Tim Hallam, 37, Leamington Spa.

Tim is a graduate from Cambridge University. He has gone to great lengths to insulate his bedroom and has fitted foil on the walls, under the floor and on the ceiling. He sleeps in a custom-made silver coated fabric sleeping bag at night, which he says helps to block out electromagnetic fields. Tim can’t work in an office environment and the condition has severely impacted his career aspirations. He currently drives a supermarket delivery van.

“Where I’m living now, it’s not a great situation. I’m lucky that the shielding worked to a large degree. But I would love to live somewhere I didn’t have to live in a metal box and sleep in a bag, where I could go to a café and see my friends, go to the cinema, all those things that people take for granted.”

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Brian Stein (64), Nottinghamshire.

“Generally speaking, people don’t talk about it. Can you imagine that you can’t use a computer, you can’t watch TV, you can’t fly on a plane, go on a train, stay in hotels, or walk round the high street when there’s wi-fi?  My credibility in my job was very very important to me.  So did I talk to customers about this to begin with?  Not at all, but there came a point in time, where I took the view, if Brian Stein doesn’t speak out about this, who will?”

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Hannah Metcalfe, Kent.

Hannah suffered from psoriasis as a child and started sun bed treatment at the age of 9, to help clear up her skin. In her late twenties, she started developing severe migraines and fatigue when working in offices with fluorescent lights. She always felt discomfort when using a mobile phone. The severity of her symptoms got worse when she later discovered a sensitivity to wi-fi. As a result of her sensitivities Hannah gave up her job as a trainee criminal solicitor in 2010 and now lives with her husband and two children on a farm in Kent.

“When I realised that wi-fi was making me ill, and I also turned off the digital phone; so [there] was nothing wireless in the house, I just went from feeling like this sluggish person, to feeling so vibrant and alive, with so much energy. Just amazing to feel well.”

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Michael Bevington, Stowe School, Buckinghamshire.

Michael has been a Classics teacher for 34 years.

In 2006, the school had wi-fi fitted in his classroom. He immediately developed symptoms of severe headache and heart palpitations. As he had been working in the same classroom for many years without any ill-health, he was able to quickly attribute his symptoms to the wi-fi. He asked the school for it to be removed and returned to a wired connection instead, and his symptoms at work went away.

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Raphael Cuesto, London.

In 2004, while working for a telecommunications company in Kuala Lumpur, Raphael noticed that he was developing pains in his arms and hands every time he worked on his laptop. His symptoms got worse and he began getting headaches and heart palpitations from using his mobile for only a few minutes, and this progressed to almost immediate pain when he brought the phone near his head. He decided to stop using his mobile altogether and left his job in the telecoms industry. He is now a teacher and lives in London.

“When you spend a minute on the phone and get palpitations, you know you have to do something about it. I remember one day turning [over] a piece of paper and writing in the middle of the page ‘jobs without a mobile phone’. I had to change everything.”

There is plenty more pictures and stories where these came from.

Is there a place on earth where EHS sufferers can live undisturbed by electromagnetic fields?

Yes, there is. The place is a tiny town called Green Bank, West Virginia, USA, population 143.

The residents of Green Bank can’t use cell phones, wi-fi, or other kinds of modern technology because of a government ban. The reason of the ban? Green Bank houses Robert C. Byrd telescope, a gleaming white, 485-foot-tall behemoth of a dish that looms over the town.

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In Green Bank, you can’t make a call on your cell phone, and you can’t text on it, either. Wireless internet is outlawed, as is Bluetooth. It’s a premodern place by design, devoid of the gadgets and technologies that define life today. And thanks to Uncle Sam, it will stay that way: The town is part of a federally mandated zone where a government high-tech facility’s needs come first. Wireless signals are verboten.

In electromagnetic terms, it’s the quietest place on Earth—blanketed by the kind of silence that’s golden to electrosensitives […] (– From the article in Washingtonian. The article has the stories of technophobes and electrosensitives  who recently moved to Green Bank.)

Flying Houses that Laurent Chéhère…

flying_houses06par_3082848k…Built? Photographed? Photoshopped? Digitally manipulated? All (but built) of the above.

The old Parisian edifices glide high above the ground, captured mid-journey, moving above the clouds… They are like exotic balloons tethered out of frame to their flimsy strings…

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This surreal series literally and figuratively elevates many Parisian buildings that might have otherwise been overlooked, lifting them up, up, up into the skies…

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Laurent Chéhère was known to stroll around the Belleville and Ménilmontant neighborhoods, admiring their tired-looking but nonetheless fascinating houses.

“I tried to get these sad houses out of the anonymity of the street, to help them to tell their story, true or fantasized,” the artist wrote.

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“Technically, I drew the buildings and afterward, I shot each element such as the roof, walls, windows, graffiti, and even the people—it’s a montage,” explained Laurent Chéhère. “The series is a tribute to the old Paris and the movies including The Red Balloon, and directors such as Hayao Miyazaki, Wim Wenders, and Federico Fellini.”

By his own admission, one of Chéhère’s inspiration for his Flying Houses was the poetic vision of the old Paris by Albert Lamorisse, famously expressed in his short film The Red Balloon:

Felines’ Feelings Toward Music

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If you are not a cat lover (and even if you are), you might have never known of a true scientific magazine — the venerable Journal of Feline Medicine. It is, as the name suggests, dedicated to all things medical related to felines. Such as this article: Influence of music and its genres on respiratory rate and pupil diameter variations in cats under general anaesthesia: contribution to promoting patient safety.

Based on peoples’ experience and proven scientific research, it’s been known for a while already: listening to music reduces pain and stress in human patients. Music calms nerves. It soothes people. It makes them happy.

The study in the Journal of Feline Medicine is thought to be the first one to prove that music affects felines in the similar way it affects humans.

In cognitive science, music is one of the most intriguing and eccentric components of human culture, being apparently universal. In a non-consensual way, music can be defined as the art of organising sound in a temporal dimension according to such properties as melody, harmony, rhythm and tone in order to produce a continuous, unified and evocative composition. Regardless of its definition, it is widely accepted that music has different physiological and psychological effects on the individual. (–From the above article.)

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‘After reading about the influence of music on physiological parameters in humans, I decided to design a study protocol to investigate whether music could have any physiological effects on my surgical patients.

‘In the surgical theatres at the faculty where I teach and at the private veterinary medical centre where I spend my time operating, environmental music is always present.” (Dr Miguel Carreira, a veterinary surgeon at the University of Lisbon, Portugal who led the study.)

The researchers found that  classical music — Samuel Barber’s Adagio for Strings, for instance, or George Handel’s compositions  — made the cats more relaxed while Natalie Imbruglia’s Torn was slightly less effective. Listening to AC/DC’s Thunderstruck appeared to have an opposite effect — it significantly increased the stress levels in the animals already stressed out by the ordeal of the surgery.

‘During consultations I have noticed, for example, that most cats like classical music, particularly George Handel compositions, and become more calm, confident and tolerant throughout the clinical evaluation.’ (Dr Miguel Carreira.)

The researchers fit 12 cats with headphones and — after exposing the cats to at least two minutes of silence — played random clips of music during neutering surgery. While at it, the researchers were monitoring their subjects heartbeat, measuring their respiratory rate and pupil diameter (see the cat’s pinched tongue, wired to the monitor.)


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Cat undergoing surgery at a veterinary clinic in Portugal, the site of the research.

The talented psychologists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and musicians at the University of Maryland composed  the first “species-specific” music for domestic cats. The music replicates the rhythms of cat’s purring and high pitched meows. Well, wow and meow!

It’s been determined that cats liked feline tunes even more than they liked human classical music by Bach, Faure and Barber.

Interesting sound. Listen. 

It is claimed that this music makes cat less agitated and all nine kitty’s lives more fulfilling. Pet owners are encouraged to play this composition to their beloved felines, and play it often. Let’s hope it won’t make the owners more agitated and their own only lives more miserable.

The researchers now hope to look at how music might impact other animals including dogs.

Cute kitties of the top image came from this site, dedicated to the pictures of cats listening to music.

Order In The Court: Animals On Trial

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A rooster who made a deal with the Devil, termites-destroyers, killer-pigs, criminally inclined mice… History knows quite a few famous criminal prosecutions where the defendants — unbeknownst to them — happened to be monkeys, rodents, pigs, birds and even insects.
monkeyIn 1877, in New York, certain Mary O’Shea’s finger was bitten by an organ grinder’s  monkey. Mary demanded compensation, but the judge denied her request, arguing that he cannot prosecute a monkey. Furious, Mary stormed out of the courtroom.

Dressed in a scarlet coat and velvet cap, the defendant was delighted with the decision of the court. She wrapped her tail around the gas lamp on a judge’s table and tried to shake his hand. The entry in the court documents stated: “Name: Jimmy Dill. Occupation: Monkey. Status: acquitted.

Pep and Lady

Pep and Lady

Labrador retriever named Pep, who lived in Pike County, Pennsylvania, had the misfortune to be a neighbor of Governor Pinchot. One hot summer day in 1924, this friendly dog, overcome by a feat of temporary insanity, killed the Mrs. Pinchot’s favorite cat. The Governor was furious and insisted on an immediate trial. The defense’s argument that the crime was committed in a heat of passion did not save Pep from punishment.

The dog was sentenced to life imprisonment and sent to Philadelphia’s Eastern State Penitentiary. Baffled, jailers could not decide whether to assign a canine convict a prison number but, in the end, tradition won. Pep became number  z/S2559. In prison, Pep was surrounded by universal love, and allowed to change the inmates at will. At the time, the prisoners were erecting a new prison building in Greyterforde, Pennsylvania. Every morning, convict Pep climbed the prison bus, when his number was called. Pep was transferred to nearby Graterford Penitentiary in 1929.

In 1930, after six human (ie, forty-two dog) years of imprisonment “Pep the cat-murdering dog” died peacefully of old age.

Similar fate befell Lady, a beagle who belonged to the captain of the prison’s guards. She posed for the second picture in 1957.

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Perhaps the most famous trial with the animal on the dock was held in Basel in 1474. A rooster was accused for the crime of laying an egg without yolk. In those days, it was a common knowledge that this kind of eggs could be laid by witches possessed by Satan, and only deadly winged serpents could hatch from them.

The accused rooster was as good as dead. His defense lawyer did not dare to claim that his client was innocent. He built his defense on a premise that cock was not in cahoots with the Devil. No way. The egg was an accident, and the deed was entirely without malice. After a lengthy trial, overzealous judge dismissed defense’s argument and concluded that cock was, indeed, possessed by the Devil. Both the rooster and the egg were burned to the delight of a large crowd of spectators.mice

In 1519, in the town of Stelvio, Italy, field mice were accused in spoiling crops by digging holes in the ground. Mice were provided a defense lawyer, His name was Hans Grinebner. The lawyer tried to justify his clients’ behavior, arguing that mice led a tough and miserable life of deprivation and suffering. Grinebner further argued that his clients were a useful members of society, eating insects and enriching the soil. Prosecutor Schwartz Mining insisted that the damage done by mice prevented farmers from paying rent and taxes. The judge, however, has shown leniency. He ruled to exile the rodents, ensuring their safety and providing  two-week reprieve to mice “who are either too young or have young children of their own.”0003-002-Svinja-s-porosjatami

Among the animals accused in criminal behavior, pigs occupied a special place. In the Middle Ages, left unattended, pigs often attacked small children. After the arrest, they were commonly placed in solitary confinement, registered as “pigs belonging to so-and-so” and then publicly hanged in compliance with all formalities proscribed by the law.pigs

Annals of animal trials mention a number of famous pig-criminals. One of the most unusual cases was heard in Savigny, France, in 1457. A sow and her six piglets were accused in “willfully and maliciously” killing a five year old boy, Jean Martin. After a speedy trial, the perp sow was convicted and hung by her hind legs.

But were the piglets just as guilty? After the saw was executed, the court ordered the piglet’s owner, Jean Baillie, to take them into temporary custody to await for the second hearing. But Baillie refused to vouch for the piglets, since he doubted that, in the future, the sextet of oinking youngsters would behave like law-abiding animals. Three weeks later, the six little piglets appeared in court for a hearing. Taking into account their young age and lack of convincing evidence of their guilt, the court exercised leniency. The piglets were placed into the care of a local nobleman, while their owner, Monsieur Baillie, was relieved of all financial responsibility. Termity_01

At the beginning of the XVIII century, the monks of a Franciscan monastery in Brazil grew desperate: termites devoured not only food and furniture, but even the walls of the monastery. Monks appealed to the bishop, asking to exterminate the vicious termites. A community court was held. Since defendants defiantly, and for obvious reasons, did not appear in court, they were appointed a defense attorney.termite

In his passionate opening statement the lawyer for the defense stated that all of God’s creatures deserve their God intended sustenance. Further, he extolled a remarkable zeal of termites, which, in his opinion, was far superior to the zeal of the monks. In addition, he pointed out that termites have lived on this earth long before the arrival of the monks.

The proceedings were lengthy and full of complex legal arguments and quotations from the Fathers of the Church. In the end, it was decided that termites should be allocated the land of their own. The judge’s decision was read aloud in front of a termite mound. According to the monastic document dated in the Year of Our Lord 1713, termites were removed from their mounds and relocated to a new place.

Who said there is no justice in the world?!

 

Jolly Idiotic April Fool’s Day

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Happy April 1st!

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If no one is talking to you on April 2nd, then your April 1st prank was a success.

Meanwhile, in Japan,sakuraIn Russia:
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In France:
Spring in Paris. Blossoming jacarandas and the Eiffel Tower. Foc
In India:

Gir Forest National Park in India

Gir Forest National Park in India

and elsewhere —

Artwork by Tomas Brightenbach

Artwork by Tomas Brightenbach

…there is spring. Life goes on. Pretty much, as usual — god only knows where and why — although we all have a few ideas.  But don’t let anyone fool you!

She Had No Fear

Poster by Joe Scorsone, Alice Drueding

Poster by Joe Scorsone, Alice Drueding

In a nutshell: The autonomic responses associated with fear and hormonal secretions is the function of the amygdala. Scientific studies of the amygdala have led to the discovery of the location of neurons in the amygdala that are responsible for fear conditioning. Fear conditioning is an associative learning process by which we learn through repeated experiences to fear something.

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There was an article in Current Biology, a case study of patient called SM — a rare human patient with focal bilateral amygdala lesions. Scientists admit that it was the first investigation of the induction and experience of fear in such a patient.

To provoke fear in SM, she was exposed to a number fear-inducing situations: live snakes and spiders, a tour of a haunted house, emotionally evocative films — you name it, the woman had it all.

Patient SM failed to exhibit fear behaviors, and demonstrated an overall impoverished experience of fear. Her response indicated NO activation of the sympathetic division of the peripheral nervous system: no accelerated heart rate, no dilated pupils, no increase in metabolic rate, and no increase in blood flow to the muscles. All of the above normally triggers a state of fear, and the human amygdala is responsible for it.strah-lyubvi

The SM woman with damaged amygdala was afraid of nothing and, after 3 months of experiments, reported in multiple questionnaires that shе was, in fact, fearless. Everything else about her emotional makeup was quite ordinary.  SM’s neuropsychological profile has been stable for the past two decades. She performed perfectly within the normal range on standardized tests of IQ, memory, language etc. Conclusion: if there is no triggering mechanism in the brain then there is no state of fear and, consequently, no fear itself.Как-поборость-страх

Interesting that the ancient Incas, as archaeological evidence suggests, might have had the rudimentary knowledge of neurosurgery.  Here is an ancient Peruvian skull with evidence of trepanation (a surgical intervention in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the human skull.)

Inca warriors were famously fearless, and many fallen soldiers had holes drilled in their heads… Could their surgeons (or priests or barbers) have figured out where inside the warriors’ heads hides their fear and gone straight for amygdala with an ancient drill to create a monstrously fearless army?

Another interesting article on the subject of fear and amygdala:  The Amygdala Is Not The Fear Centre, Scientist Now Claim!

Sisyphus, Camus and Absurd

on the ledgeТhe meaning or meaninglessness of human existence has always been a favorite subject of philosophy. Many philosophers have come to believe that human life is ABSURD. For them, it was a conclusion and a final result of studies.  Albert Camus  makes this conclusion a starting point of his argument.
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The idea of the absurd, best expressed  in The Myth of Sisyphus, waAlbert Camus’ first significant contribution to philosophy.

There is but one truly serious philosophical problem, and that is suicide. Judging whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of philosophy. All the rest — whether or not the world has three dimensions, whether the mind has nine or twelve categories — comes afterward. 

In a nutshell, the essence of The Myth of Sisyphus is this: There is no reason, faith and/or hope for the future in this world. The feeling of life’s absurdity casts doubt on the very existence of God and the wisdom of social order. The eternal truths about life is discerned through feelings and emotions. There comes a time when a man has to make a choice: either voluntarily leave this world or challenge absurdity and meaninglessness.

Well, something along these lines.

So there. Life is absurd. Live it or leave it. There are so many wonderfully effective ways to raise above the absurdity of life, step out of it and into the oblivion (or whatever your idea of thereafter might be.)

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How sad and how true.

For some.

For most?

Fulfilling your destiny through life experiences —  however dreadful or exiting, painful or pleasant they might be — becomes in itself the meaning of life.

Take Sisyphus, for example. This mythical character gets punished for his earthly passions and love of life.
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Devious gods devised a clever if cruel punishment. What can be more absurd than rolling a huge boulder up the hill, huffing and puffing, straining and sweating, and then looking down in despair, realizing that his labor was in vain, and he’d have to start over.

What fate! Poor guy. Exerting his mythical self toward accomplishing absolutely nothing for the rest of his mythical life… Won’t it be so much easier to just give up and end it all, stepping under the rock, by the will of gods rolling down the mountain?

However, according to Camus, fate is not a punishment. Even if his fate is, in fact, a punishment of gods? Ah, never mind. Back to Camus:

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Frankly, I can’t. Imagine that Sisyphus was happy, that is. Unless he is a quintessential masochist, and the myth is covering up this peculiarity of his psyche.

Camus: “I leave Sisyphus at the foot of the mountain! One always finds one’s burden again. But Sisyphus teaches the higher fidelity that negates the gods and raises rocks. He too concludes that all is well. This universe henceforth without a master seems to him neither sterile nor futile. Each atom of that stone, each mineral flake of that night filled mountain, in itself forms a world.” 

Thus Sisyphus is Camus’ absurd hero. Or, rather, a hero in a world that is absurd (and is ruled by absurd gods). And he is not alone at the top of the mountain with his damned rock about to start rolling down. Camus puts other historical figures and literary characters right there with Sisyphus: Don Juan and Commander, Moliere’s Alceste, Adrienne Lecouvreur and a few others.

The existence of a modern person (and many might disagree!) is similar to the fate of Sisyphus — in many ways it is absurd. Awareness of it, according to Camus and his ideas of absurdism,  should allow people to reevaluate the absurdity of  their own destiny and become free, either stepping under the rolling stone or, Camus hopes, summon lots of courage and become… a hero like Sisyphus.

Like Sisyphus? Find your burden, conclude that all is well and hope it’s enough to fill your heart.

Oh, the absurdity of absurdism!

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The Very Rich Hours of the Duke de Berry

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Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. Astrological Man

 Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (“The Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry”) is a livre d’heures — a “Book of Hours”, commissioned by Duke of Berry in the Year of Our Lord 1410. Book of Hours is a prayer book for private devotion, with a Latin text. These prayers and meditations were meant to be recited at those moments of the liturgical day traditionally called “hours”.

The Garden of Eden

The Garden of Eden.

The illustrations of a Book of Hours usually began with calendar miniatures, followed by scenes from the life of the Virgin Mary and from the Passion of Christ, concluding with representations from those saints favored by the book’s patron.

The Deposition

The Deposition

By the fifteenth century,  Books of Hours became so popular that they outnumbered, all other categories of illustratedmanuscripts.

 The Horseman of Death

The Horseman of Death

The splendor and beauty of miniatures gradually came to overshadow the text of prayers. Thus Duke of Berry’s Book of Hour developed into objects of great aesthetic value in its own right.

The Rising of Lazarus

The Rising of Lazarus

131 exquisite miniatures lavishly decorated with gold and silver, and 216 pages containing 300 gold initials in a 416 page manuscript… Sophistication of the late Gothic French painting, deeply understood Italian art tradition and wealth of realistic observations foreshadowing the development of the Northern Renaissance… Who painted those astounding masterpieces?

Paul Limbourg and his brothers, Hermann and Jean, mostly.  In 1416, when the Duke died, all traces of the three talented brothers were lost. Presumably the three Limbourgs perished in a plague outbreak the same year their patron died. They were very young.

Calendar miniatures in The Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry:

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December (detail)

December (detail)

Never before had a prayer book been illustrated with such magnificent full-page miniatures, depicting scenes in the life of the court and the surrounding countryside. The realism of the architectural setting is arresting, the boldness of design unprecedented in any other manuscript of the period.