Justice For Jesus

christ.jpgJesus was condemned by the Sanhedrin, the Supreme Court of Israel (an assembly of twenty-three to seventy-one men appointed in every city in the Land of Israel) for proclaiming himself the Son of God, the Messiah. Since, according to Sanhedrin and the Romans,  Jesus was not the Son of God, the ruling and the sentence was fair — perfectly in keeping with the times. However, the verdict handed down by the Sanhedrin and executed by the Romans wasn’t without a number of procedural errors.

  • The hearing took place at night, although the law explicitly forbade the convocation of the Sanhedrin after dark.
  • Jesus was condemned during the Easter holidays, while during the Passover every official activities were strictly forbidden. 

Interesting that in 1948, an appeal to overturn Jesus Christ’s conviction was filed with the newly created Supreme Court of the State of Israel. The Court, however, declared itself incompetent to rule on appeal.christ.PNGMore recently, in August of 2013, the Kenyan lawyer Dola Indidis attempted to get justice for Jesus yet again. He urged the International Court of Justice at Hague to hear the 2000 year old case of the founder of Christianity and  completely exonerate Jesus Christ.

Is the “justice for Jesus” quest has merit?

“In this case, it is not clear what international law might have been violated and, even if there was such a violation, it is not clear that the relevant states have consented to the ICJ (the International Court of Justice) having jurisdiction over the dispute.” (Columbia law professor Anthea Roberts.)

One Million Buddhas: Wat Phra Dhammakaya

million Buddhas In order to familiarize yourself with all the temples of Thailand one need more than one day, one week or even a month. There are about 40 thousand temples, each with its own peculiarity. Perhaps one of the most interesting  is the Buddhist temple of  Wat Phra Dhammakaya.million Buddhas2 Located in Khlong Luang district, only 16 km from the Bangkok international airport, the temple is famous for its enormous size. However, very few people know about it.Buddhist monks pray at the Wat Phra Dhammakaya temple in Pathum Thani province, north of Bangkok on Makha Bucha Day

Buddhist monks pray at the Wat Phra Dhammakaya temple in Pathum Thani province, north of Bangkok on Makha Bucha Day February 14, 2014. Makha Bucha Day honours Buddha and his teachings, and falls on the full moon day of the third lunar month. REUTERS/Damir Sagolj (THAILAND – Tags: SOCIETY RELIGION TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY) *** Local Caption *** Biarawan Buddha berdoa di kuil Wat Phra Dhammakaya, provinsi Pathum Thani, Thailand, pada Hari Makha Bucha, Jumat (14/2). Pada Hari Makha Bucha, umat Buddha memperingati Buddha dan ajaran-Nya, dan jatuh pada hari bulan purnama di bulan ketiga penanggalan bulan. ANTARA FOTO/REUTERS/Damir Sagolj/ox/14.

million Buddhas95Wat Phra Dhammakaya is more than impressive no matter which way you look at it, with its huge dome at the center of the monastery adorned with a mind boggling three hundred thousand golden Buddhas. This is a lot more than the number of statuettes that made famous the Ten Thousand Buddhas Monastery (Man Fat Tsz), is a Buddhist temple in Sha TinHong Kong.

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Another 700,000 Buddhas displayed inside the temple. The golden dome is surrounded by a platform for meditation, serving as a memorial in honor of the founder of the sect, Phramonkolthepmuni.million Buddhas91

Wat Phra Dhammakaya is the center of the Dhammakaya Movement, a Buddhist sect founded in the 1970s and led by Phra Dhammachayo (Phrathepyanmahamuni). million Buddhas1

The temple was established in February of 1970, and the main chapel was completed in 1982. The leaders of the movement were accused of commercialization of religion, since Wat Phra Dhammakaya, worth $1 billion looked more like a giant spaceship, stadium or  a flying saucer rather than a traditional Buddhist temple.  million Buddhas94In 1999, however, and again, in 2002, it became the center of a scandal on a national scale. Wikipedia article has all the details of the controversy and ensuing allegation of embezzlement and money laundering. 

The author of the fabulous photographs used in this post, except for the Reuters/Damir Sagolj and National Geographic, is Aleksej Pitalenko (Алексей Питаленко.)

 

The Curious History Of Stripes

stripes9In 1310, in French town of Rouen, one hapless shoemaker was sentenced to death for having been caught wearing a striped garment. This unusual case shows how the striped clothes were treated in the Middle Ages.

Michel Pastoureau, one of the best specialists in medieval symbolism, wrote a lively study of stripes, The Devil’s Cloth: A History of Stripes and Striped Fabric, a unique and engaging perspective on the evolution of fashion, taste, and visual codes in Western culture.stripes.jpg

The Devil’s Cloth begins with a medieval scandal. When the first Carmelites arrived in France from the Holy Land, the religious order required its members to wear striped habits, prompting turmoil and denunciations in the West that lasted fifty years until the order was forced to accept a quiet, solid color.

The medieval eye found any surface in which a background could not be distinguished from a foreground disturbing. Thus, striped clothing was relegated to those on the margins or outside the social order—jugglers and prostitutes, for example—and in medieval paintings the devil himself is often depicted wearing stripes. The West has long continued to dress its slaves and servants, its crewmen and convicts in stripes. (Columbia University Press.)

Carmelites were, at worst, stoned and, at best, met with whistles and all sorts of intimidation. The conflict came to the attention of Pope Alexander IV, who forbade wearing of striped robes by the Supreme Decree. The stubborn Carmelites did not abide by the papal prohibition. The Vatican persisted and the final bull of Pope Boniface VIII forbade wearing strips by all Catholic monastic orders in the world, without exception .

Scene of court life with musicians playing viola

GERMANY – CIRCA 2002: Scene of court life with musicians playing viola, dulcimer, fife, drum and bagpipes, miniature from Manesse Code, manuscript, 1304, Germany. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)

In the preface to his book, Pastoureau writes that preserved since XII-XIII century, abundant documentation shows that striped clothing was considered shameful, degrading and downright diabolical. Striped attire was worn by executioners and prostitutes. In medieval Europe striped suits were worn by all sorts of outcasts — circus performers, jesters, lepers, cripples, heretics and illegitimate children.
stripes2To this day, there is no consensus about the origin of stripes’ bad reputation. Pastoureau suggests that it came from the free interpretation of biblical quote  Do not put on two tunics (Mark 6:9.) Another hypothesis, secular one, is more “practical”: striped clothing conceal the silhouette, and this alone could be regarded as an attempt of camouflage. However, neither the first nor the second hypothesis can explain the reasons for the medieval Europeans’ hateful attitude toward striped garments.stripes3Diabolical nature of strips extends to the striped animals as well. Not only black, but striped cats, tigers, snakes and hyenas were considered to have diabolical traits. Although in the Middle Ages only very few Europeans knew of the existence of  zebras, Catholic naturalists ranked zebras as “devils of animals.” Unsuspecting zebras were relinquished to this category until the age of Reformation when the new generation of zoologists dispelled this belief.
stripes4The strips shed its diabolical designation at the end of the XVIII century. Revolution occurred not only in France and the New World, but also in the minds of ordinary people. Stripes were no longer seen as taboo. A fashion for striped fabric, from clothing to furniture upholstery and walls, took off with vengeance.
stripes5However, in 19th century, coming a long way from the Middle Ages, the fear of stripes in society was embodied in the striped prison uniforms.  Around this time, the black-and-white stripes familiar from old movies came into vogue, marking the men in a way that would remain embedded in public memory. stripesSlowly, as time went on, prisons began to eliminate the stripes for more neutral colors and the familiar worker-like jumpsuits. New York switched to grey in 1904 because, according to an article in Slate, the stripes were “a badge of disgrace.” Many states kept the stripes longer; North Carolina kept them until 1958.
stripes6

CENDARI

cendari.PNGThe CENDARI (Collaborative European Digital Archive Infrastructure) is a 4-year, European Commission-funded project led by Trinity College Dublin, in partnership with 13 institutions across 7 countries, to facilitate access to archives and resources in Europe for the benefit of researchers everywhere.

CENDARI will provide and facilitate access to existing archives and resources in Europe for the study of medieval and modern European history through the development of an “enquiry environment”. This environment will increase access to records of historic importance across the European Research Area, creating a powerful new platform for accessing and investigating historical data in a transnational fashion overcoming the national and institutional data silos that now exist.cendari.jpg

CENDARI will leverage the power of the European infrastructure for Digital Humanities (DARIAH) bringing these technical experts together with leading historians and existing research infrastructures (archives, libraries and individual digital projects) within a programme of technical research informed by cutting edge reflection on the impact of the digital age on scholarly practice.

I copied the above passages from the CENDARI announcements on several participating sites. In layman terms, CENDARI brings together multitude of historians and scientific institutions, thus becoming a kind of response to academic and archival activities to the requirements of the electronic age.
Data for CENDARI were aggregated from library Europeana, giving unlimited access to the metadata of 3.5 million newspapers and 90 million catalog records of national and research libraries of 48 countries.
Users can create and edit archival descriptions, search by language, library categories, geographical area and even neighborhoods, exact location and subject.
A large number of documents that belong to a number of cultural institutions not directly involved in  CENDARI has been integrated into Europeana library. ww1i

This is a Russian WW1 card. The rhyming inscription says, roughly, “Don’t  violate our neutrality. Alas! Teutons used to respect only cannons.” (From the collection of the University of Noth Carolina at Chapel Hill.wwi2

wwi

Satirical map of Europe, Berlin, 1914.

Those materials  could be seen visiting  Europeana 1914-1918, focusing on untold stories and official histories of WW1, exploring stories, films and historical material about the First World War.  Europeana 1914-1918 mixes resources from libraries and archives across the globe with memories and memorabilia from families throughout Europe. “Discover. Learn. Research. Use. Share,” urges Europeana.

The same can be said about the entire CENDARI project — Discover. Learn. Research. Use. Share. It’s just that there is sooooooo much to discover, learn, research, use and share… Even if you are a kindergartner right now, there is very little time already… So hurry!

Seven Wives of Ivan the Terrible

ivan-grozny-vasnetsovIvan IV Vasilyevich (1530 – 1584)  commonly known as Ivan the Terrible Tsar of All the Russias from 1547 until his death in 1584, was a controversial historical figure: Tyrant and a reformer, a monster and a strategist. He was given to sexual excess and was marrying often. Officially, Tsar Ivan IV had 7 wives. Unfortunately, not one of them lived long enough to enjoy golden years. By coincidence or by design, most of them met their Maker when still young, sometimes very shortly after the wedding bells and coronation.

In this respect, Ivan the Terrible of Russia was no better (or worse) than England’s poly-amorous Henry VIII  (1491 — 1547), born 40 years earlier, who was married 6 times.

1 - Анастасия Захарьина

Wife No 1 — Anastasia Zakharyina.

When it came time to marry, a young Tsar Ivan IV, 17 at the time, conducted a search and a rigorous selection among potential brides. His choice fell on Anastasia Zakharyina. According to the chronicles, she was Ivan’s only true love.  Anastasia died in 1560. This was by far the longest marriage of Ivan’s life, lasted more than a decade.  Some historians claim that Tsarina Anastasia was poisoned by the Tsar’s enemies envious of the Anastasia’s influence on him.

2 - Мария Темрюкова

Wife No 2 — Maria Temrykova

The same year he lost his first wife, however aggrieved, Tsar Ivan sent ambassadors to look for a new wife. And soon enough, they found one. She was the daughter of the Kabardin Prince Temryuk, Maria. It was said that her beauty was mysterious, dangerous and mesmerizing. In addition to her many attractions, the new Tsarina  shared at least one of Ivan’s interests — she loved to witness executions, the more gory and elaborate affair they were the more they delighted exotic Tsarina.

She often whispered into her husband’s ear the names of those she didn’t like. Those unfortunate people would eventually become next victims of Ivan’s terrible temper and Maria’s love of blood and gore. Maria died of a rather mundane cause —  succumbed to pneumonia.

3 - Марфа Собакина

Wife No 3 — Marpha Sobakina

Another wife gone, and the Tsar was open for marriage again. This time, 2,000 beauties participated in the pageant. 24 remained after the first round of selection, then the pool was thinned down to 12. The contenders were subjected to a number of scrupulous checkups and humiliating  scrutiny by courtiers and doctors. Marpha Sobakina met every criteria. However, almost immediately after the wedding, she became unwell and died two weeks later. Rumors abound, however, no one could say for sure whatever befell otherwise healthy and vivacious young woman.

4 - Анна Колтовская

Wife No 4 — Anna Koltovskaya

Be that as it may, Tsar Ivan married again. So many church weddings in such a short time was against the church rules. The priests agreed to conduct a ceremony very reluctantly, on pain of death.

The 18-year-old Anna Koltovskaya was the darling of the people, but wasn’t held in high esteem by the boyars (ranking courtiers.) A few slanderous accusations too many against the young Tsarina and Ivan couldn’t stand it any more. Eventually, he sent Anna to a convent, christening her Daria in nunnery. She lived the rest of her life in an underground monastic cell.  This was the last of his weddings, authorized by the Church. Later, former Anna, Tsarina of Russia, was   canonized as Saint Daria.

5 - Анна Васильчикова

Wife No 5 — Anna Vasilchikova

Soon thereafter, the Tsar remarried. A pretty young girl he choose was the daughter of Prince Peter Vasilchikov, Anna, age 16. This time, the church stood firm and did not recognize the marriage that lasted — alas! — all but 3 months. Young and healthy before the nuptials, Anna suddenly died. Her death was eerily similar to the demise of Marpha Sobakina, wife No 3, not that this curious fact went unnoticed. Anna’s  body was taken out of the palace secretly, in the dead of the night.

6 - Василиса Мелентьева

Wife No 6 — Vasilisa Melentyeva

Vasilisa Melentyeva was happily married when Tsar Ivan cast his roving eye upon her. Immediately after the Tsar took liking of Vasilisa, her husband died for “no apparent reason.” What luck!  Historical records indicate that with the appearance of Vasilisa in Ivan’s life he became somewhat less “terrible.” He stopped his sexual escapades and orgies, send away from his chambers all his “spare” women and  settled into a happy married life.

It lasted for two years. Then, one fine afternoon, Tsar Ivan caught his wife with a lover. The terrible ways swiftly returned to Tsar Ivan. His punishment, indeed, was swift and terrible. Both Vasilisa and her lover were buried alive.

7 - Мария Нагая

Wife No 7 — Maria Nagaya

Tsar Ivan’s last wife was Maria Nagaya. She was a melancholy woman given to dark moods and bouts of sadness. His new wife’s frequent tears and moodiness unnerved the Tsar a great deal. Ivan was ready to devise ways to get rid of Maria and already started looking for a new Tsarina, but died suddenly, while playing chess, of stroke. The year was 1584. Ivan IV was 54.

Pictures From The Harem

гаремThe Europeans imagine harem (if they must, that is) as the sort of an abode for the young and beautiful women of the Arabian fairy-tales of the One Thousand and One Nights. The series of remarkable photos, taken by Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, the real Shah of Iran in the late 19th century, might as well smash all the stereotypes.shah-2

This dashing man is Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, the fourth Shah of Iran. He came to power in 1848 and ruled for 47 years — the longest reign in the 3000-year history of Iran.

According to historians, Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar was well educated for his time and established a reputation of a sybarite, so much so that it angered and annoyed his subjects.

One of Shah Qajar’s the many passions was photography. He loved taking pictures since his boyhood, when in 1844, at 13, he saw the camera for the first time. When Nasser al-Din came to power, he set up the first official photo studio in his palace.

“We were lucky that the king fell in love with photography because it was the king who started taking pictures. The Islamic clerics could not oppose him.” (Bahman Jalali, a veteran photographer and the former director of the Golestan Palace museum, a former royal home.)

In the 1870s, Russian photographer Anton Sevryugin opened his photo-studio in Tehran, and soon became the Shah’s court photographer. Sevryugin’s photographs are nothing less than a chronicle of Iranian life. For his services to the court of Iran he was awarded an honorary title.

Main entrance to the Golestan Palace. Picture by Anton Sevriugin.

The main entrance to the Golestan Palace. Photo by Anton Sevryugin.

Russian photographer was permitted to take pictures of the Shah himself, Shah’s male relatives, courtiers and servants.

Anton Sevryugin sets up a photo-shoot with the Shah.

Anton Sevryugin sets up a photo-shoot with the Shah.

A privilege of taking pictures of his harem of about 100 concubines, Shah bestowed only upon his own person. An ardent photographer, Shah developed and printed his photos in the palace photo-laboratory, kept them in satin albums stashed in an earthquake-resistant and bulletproof room at Golestan Palace.

These are a truly extraordinary photos, and for more reasons than one. Firstly, according to the Shiite law at the time, it was forbidden to make pictures, photograph and paint images of the peoples’ faces, especially visages of women. Only the most powerful man in the realm could afford to break the law.

Secondly, these pictures were remarkable because… well, because of their subject — the women of the Shah’s harem! Let’s take a look.wife-09

This is the Incomparable Anis al-Doleh — the favorite wife of the Shah.

Anis al-Doleh must’ve been truly beloved — she was the most frequent subject of the Shah’s photo shoots.

wife-07

Anis is the one with a child on her lap with another woman of the Shah's harem.

Anis is the one with a child on her lap with another woman of the Shah’s harem.

wife-01

The Incomparable Anis al-Doleh making music and showing a glimpse of her legs.

Interesting that the ladies of the harem on the photos look quite modern for their time. Their stares into the lens are calm and confident, neither timid nor flirty.

Anis, the Soulmate of the Realm, is the one sitting.

Anis, the Soulmate of the Realm, is the one sitting.

wife-04

Some of the Shah’s wives on a picnic with a cleric.

It is even conceivable that the women in the harem have been friendly with one another, judging from their group photos.wife-111On the picture above and numerous others, the Shah’s wives are captured wearing short skirts, not unlike a lush tutus — these skirts called shaliteh.wife-08There is a story behind it. In 1873, Shah Qajar received an invitation from the Russian Tzar Alexander II to visit Saint Petersburg. During his visit, Shah attended a ballet performance. He was mighty fascinated by the Russian ballerinas and, upon his return, declared that the women of his harem must wear tutus — shaliteh. The headscarves, however, must have stayed on.

More tutus.

More tutus.

Thе photo below, taken by Shah Qajar, comes the closest (even if that) to the fairy-tale image of a harem concubine, complete with black eunuch and a calian.

Young concubine with calian.

Young concubine with calian.

Boris Dolgov, a senior fellow at the Center for Arab and Islamic Studies at the Institute of Oriental Studies, has the following to say about the photos (translation is mine):

“These are, indeed, pictures of women, and not hermaphrodites or males, as many might imagine. Clearly, such population (males and/or hermaphrodites) might have been kept in harems as well, but hidden away, since Koran does not allow such perversions.  As for the “beauty” factor… Well, as we all agree, tastes differ a great deal from culture to culture and from person to person. Dark thick mustaches, adorning women’s upper lips, is rather typical for this ethnic group. It is also quite possible that the owner of a harem had special predilection for mustachioed ladies. Bushy eyebrows were fashionable at the time, and full figures were synonymous with beauty. Women in harems were fed fattening diets and their lifestyle wasn’t especially conducive of exercise or even active movement.” (Russian original is here.)

More to the story: Other sources say that it wasn’t Russian Anton Sevryugin after all, but a French photographer, Francis Carlhian, who set up the first official studio at the Shah’s palace. Also, this same article says that it has been Shah’s trip to Paris, not Saint Petersburg, where he went to see the ballet and then invented a new dress code for his wives.

In defense of the Russian source regarding ballet: The Shah’s trip to Saint Petersburg to visit the Russian royal court of Alexander II is well documented, complete with the record of the Shah’s attendance of a ballet.

However, one way or another, it doesn’t make much difference, does it? We are here for the pictures, aren’t we?

Kamikaze From Kalmykia — Samurai Uncle Sasha

kamikaze plain

Esiteru Nakagawa was born in Tokyo, in the family of actors, the eldest child with eight sisters and two brothers. When the Great East Asian War, as Japanese call WWII, started, Esiteru enrolled in a military flight school, but has been sent to the front before graduation.

Kamikaze pilots bow to the Emperor before the battle

Kamikaze pilots bow to the Emperor before the battle

He completed his pilot training in aerial combat missions in the skies over Burma, the Philippines and Singapore.

Air ace Imperial Japanese Army, Commander of the Order of the Kinshi Kunsho (Golden Kite) fighter pilot, First Lieutenant Esiteru Nakagawa

Fighter pilot of Imperial Japanese Army, Commander of the Order of Kinshi Kunsho (Golden Kite) First Lieutenant Esiteru Nakagawa

He was a valiant soldier and an excellent fighter pilot. During multiple flight missions he shot down 18 US bomber aircraft, more than enough to become a Commander of the Order of Kinshi Kunsho (Golden Kite) and, ahead of schedule, recieve the rank of “tyui” — First Lieutenant. Most importantly, for his bravery he was elevated to the ranks of samurai and bestowed a katana, the traditional samurai sword.

Kamikaze pilots. Of those in the picture, only a puppy will survive.

Kamikaze pilots. Of those in the picture, only a puppy will survive.

In 1945, fighter pilot Esiteru Nakagawa was seriously wounded in an aerial battle — a shard of American flak badly damaged his hip bone. This effectively halted his brilliant military career. Red-enamel cross “Sёgund-zinsё” (to the wounded) has become his last war decoration. With that, First Lieutenant Esiteru Nakagawa was commissioned from the Imperial Japanese Army and departed to his parental home, the town of Tayohara, now Russian Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk.

At the end of the war, the Soviet troops entered Tayohara. Lieutenant Nakagawa has been captured and became an enemy POW. But Samurai never surrenders. That was when Esiteru’s tanto — his samurai dagger — became handy. Following a strict samurai code of conduct, Esiteru committed harakiri (seppuku).

Esiteru didn’t die. Russian military surgeon Oleg Terentyev reassembled his innards, sewed his ripped open stomach and saved the life of a 25-year-old Japanese officer. His life but not his samurai honor. Bushido does not recognize failed seppuku.

Japanese tanto and Russian surgeon’s scalpel redrew his fate.

Esiteru’s new life began, whether he wanted it or not.

Almost eight years the Siberian labor camps — Khabarovsk, Tomsk, Novosibirsk, Kansk — followed… In captivity, he mastered many professions — woodcutter, fitter, welder. Esiteru still tries hard and often fails to forget those hellish years in the barracks. Many of his comrades succumbed to a horrible death but, miraculously, Esiteru survived. Perhaps, his young body refused to die again and lived with vengeance…

At the age of 96, Esiteru Nakagawa is still among the living and, all things considered, doing well.

esiteru

In 1953, Japanese prisoner of war was freed and even allowed to return to his homeland. But lieutenant Nakagawa decided against returning to Japan. By then, young Esiteru fell in love. A Russian girl, Tanya Gorbacheva, was about to have his son, a fruit of their bitter-sweet Taiga-romance. Besides, the disgrace of unsuccessful harakiri effectively made him an unworthy samurai, which bothered him a great deal. In the end, Esiteru Nakagawa took the Soviet citizenship and married Tanya.

Life is a long and tedious journey… It was no different and even more so for Esiteru-san.

Esiteru with his wife Lyubov Zavgorodnaya

Esiteru with his wife Lyubov Zavgorodnaya

Since the end of 1960s, Esiteru made his home in Iki-Burul. It is a settlement of less than 5,000 souls and the administrative center of Iki-Burulsky District of the Republic of Kalmykia. In a word, a very rural place in the midst of vast steppes.

It was here that Esiteru has found his second chance on having a home and a new family after Tanya died. He is loved and respected by his neighbors. They call him Uncle Sasha-the-samurai.

But Japan hasn’t forgot its native son and a brother to his many siblings. To her last breath,     Esiteru’s mother believed her son hasn’t died.  His brothers and sisters made an inquiry and, through the International Red Cross, learned that the Japanese officer Esiteru Nakagawa hasn’t perished in 1945 but lives in a deep Russian province. They appealed to the Embassy of Japan in Russia and requested a DNA test. The kinship of Nakagawa sisters and brothers and a rural pensioner from Kalmyk settlement has been established.

One of Esiteru’s sisters came to visit him in Iki-Burul and immediately flew his brother to Tokyo to meet the rest of the family. This flight on board the aircraft was the first one since his bygone days as a fighter pilot. What was he thinking, flying above the clouds?

Meeting with his homeland ... Nakagawa in Tokyo airport.

Meeting with his homeland … Nakagawa in Tokyo airport.

Anxiety still lived in his soul: what if his motherland greets him with derision? After all, he is a samurai who lost his honor. However, he was received as a decorated national hero, ace-pilot and a pride of the nation.

“I went to Hokkaido, visited my sisters in Sapporo and my brother Yosiu in Kiba,” says Esiteru. He also visited the grave of his mother — she died 13 years earlier. His father perished in the winter of 1945 — frozen to death in the Sakhalin snow, drunk, after learning that his favorite son committed harakiri.

Esiteru with his younger sister in Japan

Esiteru with his younger sister in Japan

To the amazement of his relatives, Esiteru declined an offer to stay in Japan, complete with a comfortable apartment in Sapporo and a generous military pension.

“Well, how could I leave my old lady? After all, we’ve been together for 30 years,” Esiteru says.

Lyubov Zavgorodnaya was invited to join her husband in Japan, but she, too, refused.

“Besides,”  Esiteru says, “I almost forgot my native language and, without an interpreter, had to communicate with gestures. And then, it’s very noisy here and terribly crowded. No comparison with the expanse of steppes we have!”

Esiteru Nakagawa. Former pilot is oxymoron.

Esiteru Nakagawa. Airplane is a rare sight in the skies over his house… Storks fly frequently, though. The old pilot watches them often. Perhaps, he is thinking of his “Nakajima” fighter. After all, “former pilot” is an oxymoron.

“Esiteru-san,” the journalist asked, “Could you fly a plane now?”

“No. Now all the buttons are different.”

“And if it were your Nakajima?”

The old man laughed. “Well, then I definitely could.” He paused and added, “Earth is different here, there, elsewhere, but the sky is the same everywhere…”

Writing On Your Face

K. Somov. A Kiss. (1908)

K. Somov. A Kiss. (1908)

Beauty marks are moles with a color, shape, and size that is considered attractive. Well, we know what they are whther or not we have them.

At various times, moles were considered either ugly or attractive, desirable one century — intolerable the next.  In the Middle Ages, a mole on the woman’s face could very well be interpreted as a “mark of the devil”,  a woman easily declared a witch and sent to the stake. To this day, there are places on the planet earth where a child may be shunned or killed for a birthmark interpreted as the sign of evil.

At the 18th century French court, luxury, elaborate clothing and erotic games reigned supreme. Beauty marks — mouche, French for fly — became fashionable attribute on both male and female faces. In the absence of real ones, artificial beauty spots were routinely crafted. These small circles cut out of black velvet, taffeta or paper had a tremendous advantage over the real ones — they could be pasted anywhere at any time and for any purpose: on faces, bare chests or shoulders.

галантный век

Strategically positioned in a strictly prescribed manner, they were an absolute must. The “language of the moles” became a code of seduction. The location, size and shape of each beauty mark eloquently communicated if a lady was ready to start a love game. Should the mood of the lady change during the day, or she did not want to mislead the wrong gentleman, it was enough to move or remove a particular beauty mark or add new one.

Not surprising that the ladies of the court carried a bunch of these little black circles with then at any time of the day. Always at hand, they were carefully arranged in a tiny boxes made of ivory, silver, tortoiseshell or even gold.

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According to ancient believes still prevalent here, there and elsewhere, the nature and the character traits might be clearly written on human faces in the “language of moles”, if any beauty marks are present. No artificial ones count — painted, tattooed or pasted.

If several moles form a shape, and this shape is a cross — it’s most unfortunate. Square and stars aren’t any good either. Sorry.  Moles forming a triangle on a person’s face, however, is a sign of good fortune.

So there. And more. Have beauty marks on your face? Read your dial.  And smile.

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1. The famous “third eye” — the eye of Shiva. The one who has it is blessed with infinite intuition, bright mind and thirst for knowledge. Also has an inclination to mysticism.
2. Passionate, jealous and easily irritable person — the one with a “short fuse”.
3. Romantic nature, tendency to intellectual pursuits and creativity.
4. This birthmark is an evidence of fidelity, sensuality and generosity.
5. Volatile, temperamental character, tendency for short-lived romances.
6. Imaginative and creative person with passion for adventure, discovery and travel.
7. Jealous, egotistic and and self-centered character.
8. Extremely sensual. Love life is endless experimenting.
9. Tendency to pick fights, quarrelsome character. When in love — displays a tendency to feeling of guilt.
10. Excellent memory, diplomacy, earthiness.
11. Thrives on complications in relationships and everything forbidden.
12. Tangled love relationships, gives it all to passion.
13. Tendency to frequent quarrels and quick reconciliations. Carnal love prevails over platonic.
14. Exalted, poetic nature, mystically inclined with a sense of universal love. Often blessed (or cursed) with quite an extraordinary fate.
15. Independent, free-spirited nature. Loves of life’s pleasures and world travel.
16. Generosity, faithfulness, longing and desire to be a parent. Makes an excellent parent when becomes one.
17.Extraordinary seducer/seductress with propensity to shocking or scandalous behavior. Loves change and variety, however, rarely compromises his/her marriage.
18. Imagination, sensuality and originality are the reigning character traits.
19. Inclination to jealousy, desire to find and hold on to one and only great love.
20. Not an easy person to be around, prone to depression.
21. Love for variety in intellectual and romantic areas. Tangled love affairs and life in general.
22. Heightened eroticism, sexuality and tendency to infidelity.
23. Punctual, precise and orderly mind. The willingness to grow both spirit and wealth.
24. Fragile psyche and health. Worrisome and insecure nature.
25. Sweet, balanced person with a penchant for conservative views and desire to have a quiet life and a strong, traditional “family values.”

Don’t take any of it seriously, particularly if you aren’t blessed with favorable alignment of beauty marks on your face.

Order In The Court: Animals On Trial

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A rooster who made a deal with the Devil, termites-destroyers, killer-pigs, criminally inclined mice… History knows quite a few famous criminal prosecutions where the defendants — unbeknownst to them — happened to be monkeys, rodents, pigs, birds and even insects.
monkeyIn 1877, in New York, certain Mary O’Shea’s finger was bitten by an organ grinder’s  monkey. Mary demanded compensation, but the judge denied her request, arguing that he cannot prosecute a monkey. Furious, Mary stormed out of the courtroom.

Dressed in a scarlet coat and velvet cap, the defendant was delighted with the decision of the court. She wrapped her tail around the gas lamp on a judge’s table and tried to shake his hand. The entry in the court documents stated: “Name: Jimmy Dill. Occupation: Monkey. Status: acquitted.

Pep and Lady

Pep and Lady

Labrador retriever named Pep, who lived in Pike County, Pennsylvania, had the misfortune to be a neighbor of Governor Pinchot. One hot summer day in 1924, this friendly dog, overcome by a feat of temporary insanity, killed the Mrs. Pinchot’s favorite cat. The Governor was furious and insisted on an immediate trial. The defense’s argument that the crime was committed in a heat of passion did not save Pep from punishment.

The dog was sentenced to life imprisonment and sent to Philadelphia’s Eastern State Penitentiary. Baffled, jailers could not decide whether to assign a canine convict a prison number but, in the end, tradition won. Pep became number  z/S2559. In prison, Pep was surrounded by universal love, and allowed to change the inmates at will. At the time, the prisoners were erecting a new prison building in Greyterforde, Pennsylvania. Every morning, convict Pep climbed the prison bus, when his number was called. Pep was transferred to nearby Graterford Penitentiary in 1929.

In 1930, after six human (ie, forty-two dog) years of imprisonment “Pep the cat-murdering dog” died peacefully of old age.

Similar fate befell Lady, a beagle who belonged to the captain of the prison’s guards. She posed for the second picture in 1957.

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Perhaps the most famous trial with the animal on the dock was held in Basel in 1474. A rooster was accused for the crime of laying an egg without yolk. In those days, it was a common knowledge that this kind of eggs could be laid by witches possessed by Satan, and only deadly winged serpents could hatch from them.

The accused rooster was as good as dead. His defense lawyer did not dare to claim that his client was innocent. He built his defense on a premise that cock was not in cahoots with the Devil. No way. The egg was an accident, and the deed was entirely without malice. After a lengthy trial, overzealous judge dismissed defense’s argument and concluded that cock was, indeed, possessed by the Devil. Both the rooster and the egg were burned to the delight of a large crowd of spectators.mice

In 1519, in the town of Stelvio, Italy, field mice were accused in spoiling crops by digging holes in the ground. Mice were provided a defense lawyer, His name was Hans Grinebner. The lawyer tried to justify his clients’ behavior, arguing that mice led a tough and miserable life of deprivation and suffering. Grinebner further argued that his clients were a useful members of society, eating insects and enriching the soil. Prosecutor Schwartz Mining insisted that the damage done by mice prevented farmers from paying rent and taxes. The judge, however, has shown leniency. He ruled to exile the rodents, ensuring their safety and providing  two-week reprieve to mice “who are either too young or have young children of their own.”0003-002-Svinja-s-porosjatami

Among the animals accused in criminal behavior, pigs occupied a special place. In the Middle Ages, left unattended, pigs often attacked small children. After the arrest, they were commonly placed in solitary confinement, registered as “pigs belonging to so-and-so” and then publicly hanged in compliance with all formalities proscribed by the law.pigs

Annals of animal trials mention a number of famous pig-criminals. One of the most unusual cases was heard in Savigny, France, in 1457. A sow and her six piglets were accused in “willfully and maliciously” killing a five year old boy, Jean Martin. After a speedy trial, the perp sow was convicted and hung by her hind legs.

But were the piglets just as guilty? After the saw was executed, the court ordered the piglet’s owner, Jean Baillie, to take them into temporary custody to await for the second hearing. But Baillie refused to vouch for the piglets, since he doubted that, in the future, the sextet of oinking youngsters would behave like law-abiding animals. Three weeks later, the six little piglets appeared in court for a hearing. Taking into account their young age and lack of convincing evidence of their guilt, the court exercised leniency. The piglets were placed into the care of a local nobleman, while their owner, Monsieur Baillie, was relieved of all financial responsibility. Termity_01

At the beginning of the XVIII century, the monks of a Franciscan monastery in Brazil grew desperate: termites devoured not only food and furniture, but even the walls of the monastery. Monks appealed to the bishop, asking to exterminate the vicious termites. A community court was held. Since defendants defiantly, and for obvious reasons, did not appear in court, they were appointed a defense attorney.termite

In his passionate opening statement the lawyer for the defense stated that all of God’s creatures deserve their God intended sustenance. Further, he extolled a remarkable zeal of termites, which, in his opinion, was far superior to the zeal of the monks. In addition, he pointed out that termites have lived on this earth long before the arrival of the monks.

The proceedings were lengthy and full of complex legal arguments and quotations from the Fathers of the Church. In the end, it was decided that termites should be allocated the land of their own. The judge’s decision was read aloud in front of a termite mound. According to the monastic document dated in the Year of Our Lord 1713, termites were removed from their mounds and relocated to a new place.

Who said there is no justice in the world?!

 

1914 – 2014: One Hundred Years…

100. A magical number — very round, three digits, exceeds current human life expectancyancy…

The centenary of the Great War ( 28 July 1914 –11 November 1918). It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, paving the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved, says Wikipedia, and it knows.

For days, the news media was overflowing with images of princes, princesses and world dignitaries without titles photogenically bowing their heads in every spot appropriate for the occasion. Photographs of the battlefields coated with corpses, accounts of seeing comrades blown apart by artillery fire…

British soldiers dash towards the enemy lines in 1914, not long after war broke out.

British soldiers dash towards the enemy lines in 1914, not long after war broke out.

As 888,246 red ceramic flowers stood abloom around the Tower of London, I read an excellent article in the Guardian,  1914: the Great War has become a nightly pornography of violence by Simon Jenkins. It made me think, and it changed my perspective on remembrance, commemorations and ceramic flowers, somewhat. A great deal, actually.

Britain, with its above average number of photogenic princes and princess per capita, excelled in staging of commemorative shows. “A Martian might think Britain was a country of demented warmongers, not able to get through a day without a dose of appalling battle scenes from past national victories,” Jenkins says.

Britain’s commemoration of the Great War has lost all sense of proportion. It has become a media theme park, an indigestible cross between Downton Abbey and a horror movie. I cannot walk down the street or turn on the television without being bombarded by Great War diaries, poems, scrapbooks and songs. The BBC has gone war mad. We have Great War plays, Great War proms, Great War bake-ins, Great War gardens, even Great War Countryfile. There is the Great War and the Commonwealth, the Great War and feminism, Great War fashion shows and souvenirs. There are reportedly 8,000 books on the war in print. 

The Royal Mail has issued “classic, prestige and presentation” packs on the war that “enable you to enjoy both the stories and the stamps”. Enjoy?

Meanwhile our finest historians compete to find the most ghoulish tales from the trenches, the most ghastly cruelties, the goriest wounds. No programme appears on television without some footage of men running through mud. Is there no other way of remembering an event than with images of death, punctuated by men in top hats with silly walks?

So true, isn’t it? Excellent example of commemorative activities becoming oddly “banal, a nightly pornography of violence,”

The most sensible commemoration of any war is not to repeat it. Hence, presumably, the constant references by this week’s celebrants to “drawing lessons” and “lest we forget”. But this is mere cliche if no lessons are then drawn, or if drawn are then forgotten.

Drawn and forgotten… Was the WWI horror beyond human imagination? Little did humans know to what heights their collective imagination can take them… WWI was said to be the war to end all wars. Instead, it has become the preparation and testing grounds for so many other wars, fought with the “lessons” of WWI in perfecting the use of sophisticated technologies and science to kill even more people — 60 to 80 millions in WWII compared to some measly 16 to 18 mills…

The presentation below, by Stijn Bollaert shows the Belgian city of Antwerp in 1914 followed by images of exactly the same places from this year.  How much (or conversely how little) some places change in 100 years! I suppose, the images below attempted to demonstrate the remarkable resilience of our species: We can — yes, we can! — recover from devastation. We need to rebuild, restore… For the future. Otherwise, what would there be for us, the descendants, to bomb, ruin and annihilate?

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